Alloy: a metal made by combining two elements. All types of steel are alloys, but “alloy steel” is steel with a specific combination of elements that boosts strength

Annealing: a heat treatment process that makes steel easier to bend and work with

ASTM: an organization (formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials) that develops international standards for many products, including steel pipe and tube

Billet: a solid length of steel, produced through either continuous casting or hot rolling, that will be further processed to form a final product

ERW: electric resistance welding, a welding method using an electrical current and applied force to transform a sheet of steel into a tube or pipe

Blast furnace: a large, brick-lined cylinder in which hot air and gases blast through iron ore, coke and limestone to extract iron from the ore.

Pig iron: the melted iron produced in a blast furnace.

Threads: the ridges on the end of a steel pipe that allow for the attachment of fittings.